The major features of Lake El'gygytgyn are as follows,
according to the following references.
· The lake is 175 m deep with a volume of 14
cubic km and is covered with ice every year from the
end of October to the beginning of June.
· The lake surface is 492 m above sea level,
and the highest point of the crater rim is 906 m above
· The crater was formed 3.6 million years ago.
· It is an oligotrophic lake inhabited by rockfish.
Previous surveys indicate that the lake have never
been parched nor covered with a glacier since its
formation, so layers of sediment more than 350 m thick
formed in the bottom of the lake and have recorded
the paleoenvironment continuously without disturbance
for over 3.6 million years. This is the only such
land record in the Arctic Circle. Therefore, in order
to promote better understanding on the role of the
Arctic Circle in the Earth's climate system, an international
research team consisting of researchers from the US,
Germany, and Russia gathered bottom core samples of
the lake in 1998, 2000 and 2003, and they are planning
to excavate in spring of 2006 in the next place. The
results for analysis of samples dating back 300,000
years have been published.
Two to three million years ago when global cooling
started, an ice sheet developed in the Northern hemisphere,
and the Arctic Circle evolved from a warm forest ecosystem
to a permafrost ecosystem. Therefore, one of the most
valuable research themes is to clarify why and how
these phenomena took place. Additionally, it is expected
that new knowledge about the formation of the impact
crater may be acquired because the landform of the
crater has been preserved well.